Top-10 facts about the Sun for kids

The sun is a yellow dwarf-type star. It is therefore a huge ball of gas in which nuclear fusion occurs. The sun has a diameter of about 1,400,000 km. It is 110 times bigger than the Earth. It represents 99.86% of the solar system, or 330,000 times that of Earth.


What is the Sun?

The Sun is a star like the ones we see shine at night, but it is the closest to Earth. A star is a huge ball of very hot gas, which produces an enormous amount of energy. And this energy emerges from the surface in the form of light. When the Sun shines on one side of the Earth, the other is plunged into darkness. The Sun thus determines our days and nights. And a terrestrial year corresponds to the time it takes for the Earth to go around the Sun completely. A very old star We therefore live at the rhythm of the Sun, but why is it so important for us? The Sun has been around for 4.5 billion years, and it still has a long time to live.

How far is the Sun from the earth?

The distance between the Earth and the Sun is such a fundamental quantity that it is called an “astronomical unit” (AU) and many measurements are expressed in relation to this distance. The AU is precisely defined as the semi-major axis of the ellipse that the Earth describes around the Sun and is now estimated to be 149,598,600 kilometers. Its measurement has long been a challenge to the ingenuity of astronomers.

How the Sun works?

The sun is a large ball of hot gas, a sphere of molten hydrogen. it is a gigantic ball of fire, the temperature in the center of the sun is about 14 million degrees. By burning the sun emits particles called photons, this is called solar radiation.

What is the weight of the Sun?

The Sun is the largest body in our solar system. But it is difficult to give a “weight”, because this word corresponds to the force exerted on Earth. It is more correct to speak of “mass” (quantity of matter).

The mass of the Sun is equal to 330,000 times that of our planet, i.e. 1,968652 x 10 to the power of 30 kilograms … In short, billions of tons!

What is the Sun made up of? How hot is the Sun?

The temperature on the surface of the Sun is 5500 ° Celsius, but it reaches 15 million degrees Celsius at its center. Which is very hot.

Gas ball including:

  • Hydrogen: 73.46%
  • Helium: 24.85%
  • Oxygen: 0.77%
  • Carbon: 0.29%
  • Iron: 0.16%
  • Neon: 0.12%
  • Traces of silicon, magnesium and sulfur.

Hydrogen constitutes almost 74% of the mass of the Sun, and helium 25%. In terms of number of atoms, hydrogen accounts for 92% of the Sun’s atoms and helium a little less than 8%. Nuclear fusion reactions take place in the Sun, transforming 620 million tonnes of hydrogen into 615.7 million tonnes of helium every second. Which means that the Sun produces over 4.3 million tons of energy every second, but that is very little compared to its immense mass (about one Earth mass lost in 50 million years). These fusions release a lot of energy, which allows the Sun to shine.

The energy of Sun

The amount of energy radiated by the Sun is gigantic: it produces in a single second 1 million times more than the whole of humanity in a year! The Earth receives about 1 billionth of this energy. Energy comes to Earth in the form of radiant heat and light (light rays). The energy and the light of the Sun take about 8 minutes and 19 seconds to travel, at the speed of light, the 150 million kilometers which separate them from the Earth.

The majority of living things on Earth derive their energy directly or indirectly from the Sun. Plants are able to transform the sun’s energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis. This chemical energy is then used to make sugars, then all the molecules of plants and green algae. Solar energy is used directly. Herbivores and omnivores then eat these plants and get their energy from them. Solar energy is then used indirectly.

Solar panels capture energy from the Sun (solar energy) and transform it into electricity. It is a renewable energy. The principle of the photovoltaic solar panel was described by Albert Einstein, which earned him the Nobel Prize in physics.

When the sun stops shining?

Will he always shine like this? Will there be a tomorrow when we no longer see these rays? Yes, in about five billion years … That leaves us with a few more sunrises in front of us.

Yes, in about five billion years… That leaves us with a few more sunrises in front of us. Indeed, the Sun transforms in its central sphere, atoms of hydrogen into atoms of helium. This reaction is accompanied by the production of radiation which will illuminate our Sun from its heart.

How old is the sun?

5 billion years: that’s roughly the age of our star according to astronomers. The Sun is halfway through its existence: Scientists have calculated that it will be another 5 billion years before it explodes! Rest assured, we will not know about this event. Our descendants may have developed a system to leave Earth and colonize other planets.

Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse occurs when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are aligned. Our natural satellite, 400 times smaller than our star but 400 times closer – luck does things well – then comes to partially or totally mask the solar star. It is therefore an appointment of the Sun with the Moon which have almost the same apparent size. Such an event can occur once or twice a year all over the Earth. However, in the same region of the Globe, years pass between two solar eclipses.